subspecies of mammal (donkey as a domesticated subspecies). Equus africanus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species e. TA TAen. Common name, Donkey. Synonym, Equus africanus asinus. Other names, › African ass ›African wild ass ›Somali wild ass ›ass ›domestic ass. Rank, SPECIES.
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A mule is the offspring of a male donkey jack and a female horse mare. Of the two first generation hybrids between these two species, a mule is easier to obtain than a hinnywhich is the offspring of a female donkey jenny and a male horse stallion. The size of a mule and work to which it is put depend largely on the breeding of the mule’s female parent dam. Mules can be lightweight, medium weight or when produced from draft horse mares, of moderately heavy weight.
The mule is valued because, while it has the size and ground-covering ability of its dam, it is stronger than a horse of similar size and inherits the endurance and disposition of the donkey sire, tending to require less food than a horse of similar size.
Mules also tend to be more independent than asibus domesticated equines other than its parental species, the donkey.
File:Equus africanus asinus – Donkey 01-1.jpg
A female mule that has estrus cycles and thus, in theory, could carry a fetus, is called a “molly” or “Molly mule”, though the term is sometimes used to refer to female mules in general. Pregnancy is rare, but can occasionally occur naturally as well as through embryo transfer.
A male mule is properly called a horse mulethough often called a john mulewhich is the correct term for a gelded mule. A young male mule is called a mule coltand a aricanus female is called a mule filly.
With its short thick head, long ears, thin limbs, small narrow hooves, and short manethe mule shares characteristics of a donkey. In height and body, shape of neck and rumpuniformity of coat, and teeth, it appears horse-like. The mule comes in all sizes, shapes and conformations. There are mules that resemble huge draft horses, sturdy quarter horsesfine-boned racing afficanus, shaggy ponies and more.
The mule is an example of hybrid vigor.
That a hybrid should possess more reason, afrixanus, obstinacy, social affection, powers of muscular endurance, and length of life, than either of its parents, seems to indicate that art has here outdone nature. The mule inherits from its sire the traits of intelligence, sure-footedness, toughness, endurance, disposition, and natural cautiousness.
From its dam it inherits speed, conformation, and agility. That said, there is a lack of robust scientific evidence to back up these claims. There is preliminary data from at least two evidence based studies, but they rely on a limited arficanus of specialized cognitive tests and a small number of subjects.
Handlers of working animals generally find mules preferable to horses: Their hooves are harder than horses’, and they show a natural resistance to disease and insects. Many North American farmers with clay soil found mules superior as plow animals. A mule does not sound exactly like a donkey or a horse.
Instead, a mule makes a sound that is similar to a donkey’s but also fquus the whinnying characteristics of a horse often starts with a whinny, ends in a hee-haw. The coats of mules come in the same varieties as those of horses. Common colors are sorrelbayblackand grey. Less common are whiteroansasinuedunand buckskin. Least common are paint mules or tobianos. Mules from Appaloosa mares produce wildly colored mules, much like their Appaloosa horse relatives, but with even asiuns skewed colors.
The Appaloosa color is produced by a complex of genes known as the Leopard complex Lp. Mares homozygous for the Lp gene bred to any color donkey will produce a spotted mule.
Donkey – Wikipedia
Mules historically were used by armies to transport supplies, occasionally as mobile firing platforms for smaller cannons, and to pull heavier field guns with wheels over mountainous trails such as in Afghanistan during the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mules and hinnies have 63 chromosomesa mixture of the horse’s 64 and the donkey’s The different structure and number usually prevents the chromosomes from pairing up properly and creating successful embryos, rendering most mules infertile.
There are no recorded cases of fertile mule stallions. A few mare adinus have produced offspring when mated with a purebred horse or donkey. AristotleHistoria animalium6. As of Octoberthere had been only 60 documented cases of mules birthing foals since One of the foals asibus a female, sired by a jack.
Unlike africnus mother, it was sterile. The other, sired by a five-gaited Saddlebred stallion, exhibited no characteristics of any donkey. That horse, a stallion, was bred to several mares, which gave birth to live foals that showed no characteristics of the donkey. In the second half of the 20th century, widespread usage of mules declined in industrialized countries.
The use of mules for farming and transportation of agricultural products largely gave way to steam then gasoline powered tractors and trucks. These hobby breeders began to utilize better mares for mule production until today’s modern saddle mule emerged. Exhibition shows where mules pulled heavy loads have now been joined with mules competing in Western and English pleasure riding, as well as dressage and show jumping competition. There is now a cable TV show dedicated to the training of donkeys and mules.
Mules, once snubbed at traditional horse shows, have been accepted for competition at the most exclusive horse shows asknus the world in all disciplines.
Mules are still used extensively to transport cargo in rugged roadless regions, such as the large wilderness areas of California’s Sierra Nevada mountains or the Pasayten Wilderness of northern Washington state.
Commercial pack mules are used recreationally, such as to supply mountaineering base camps, and also to supply trail building and maintenance crews, and backcountry footbridge building crews. Amish farmers, who reject tractors and most other modern technology for religious reasons, commonly use teams of six zfricanus eight mules to pull plows, disk harrowsand other farm equipment, though they use horses for pulling buggies on the road.
During the Soviet—Afghan Warthe United States used large numbers of mules to carry weapons and supplies over Afghanistan’s rugged terrain to the mujahideen. A mule train is a connected or unconnected line of pack mulesusually carrying cargo.
Because of the mule’s ability to carry at least as much as a horse, their trait of being sure-footed along with their tolerance of poorer coarser foods and abilities to tolerate arid terrains, mule trains were common caravan organized means of animal powered bulk transport back into pre-classical times.
In many climate and circumstantial instances, an equivalent string of pack horses would have to carry more fodder and sacks of high energy grains such as oatsso could carry less cargo.
In modern times, strings of sure footed mules have been used to carry riders in dangerous but scenic back country terrain such as excursions into canyons. Mule trains have been part of working portions of transportation links as recently as by the World Africwnus Programme.
In the nineteenth century, twenty-mule teamsfor instance, were teams of eighteen mules and two horses attached to large wagons that ferried borax out of Death Valley from to The wagons were among the largest ever pulled by draft animals, designed to carry 10 short tons 9 metric tons of borax ore at a time. Grand Canyon on the South Kaibab trail. Gotthard PassSwitzerland about White, Utah State University professor of animal science; and Dirk Vanderwall, University of Idaho assistant professor of animal and veterinary science.
The baby mule, Idaho Gemwas born May 4. It was the first clone of a hybrid animal. Veterinary examinations of the foal and its surrogate mother showed them to be in good health soon after birth.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Mule disambiguation. Working mule train, Nicaragua — In contrast, the digestive system of horses and to a lesser extent cattle are more dependent upon grasses, and evolved in climates where grasslands involved stands of grains and their high energy seed heads.
Equus africanus asinus – Wikidata
africanu Many of the latter would only become widely available through the development of machinery processing cotton ginspinning jennyetc. The waterproof qualities of beaver hats and coats was valuable in the days when transportation measured the six miles per hour of horsebacked travel as rapid transit. Animal Agriculture Series Sixth ed. A Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and General. Archived from the original on American Donkey and Mule Society.
Jeffrey; Birchler, James A. Polyploid and Hybrid Genomics. The Natural Superiority of Mules. Explicit use of et al. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 13 July The Case of the Mule’s Foal”. Angeles Chapter Sierra Club. Texas State Library and Archives Commission.
Hinny Lord Morton’s mare Mule Zebroid. Humanzee Hybrid orangutan Koolakamba. Polecat—ferret hybrid Polecat—mink hybrid. ABC Islands bear Grizzly—polar bear hybrid.
Species of the qfricanus Equus. Cape mountain zebra Equus zebra zebra Hartmann’s mountain zebra Equus zebra hartmannae. Equidae Evolution of the horse Wild horse Domestication of the horse. List of donkey breeds Donkey Zebra Onager.